There are some cases in which serious access control measures are necessary, such as the entrance into a secure or sanitized room or facility. In those cases, mantraps are a potential solution. While these access control systems require a hefty upfront investment, they can be used to prevent unauthorized access to an even more valuable facility. This guide explains everything you need to know about mantraps.
What is a mantrap?
A mantrap is a physical security system consisting of an enclosed space between two sets of interlocking doors, where one door must close before the second door can be unlocked and opened. This highly secure system briefly traps an individual inside a small room so their identity can be verified through an additional layer of security, or to ensure they are not bringing any potential contaminants into a sterile environment or out of a hazardous materials laboratory.
Granting or denying access through the second locked door is often the responsibility of a stationed guard who can assist in verifying an individual's credentials, or through automated security checks that utilize keycards, biometrics, passwords, and other multifactor authentication methods.
Mantraps can be expensive to purchase and often require a great deal of costly modification to an existing facility, but their costs may be quite minimal compared to the potential damage caused by an unauthorized individual gaining access to your most valuable data or hardware.
According to IBM Security and the Ponemon Institute's 2020 Cost of a Data Breach Report, approximately 80% of data breaches involved the theft of customer's personally identifiable information. While this may sound like a cybersecurity issue, the report also notes that 10% of the breaches in the study were the result of a physical security compromise, with an average cost of $4.36 million per breach. Many, if not all, of these physical security data breaches could have been avoided with the use of a mantrap to limit access to secure hardware.
How do mantraps work in access control?
In terms of access control systems for businesses, a mantrap is implemented for the purpose of restricting the entry and exit to and from the most secure areas of a facility.
An authorized individual must first gain entry through the perimeter door, using any number of potential ID verification technologies, such as a PIN code, fingerprint scanner, or smartphone. Once they pass through the door into the vestibule, the entry door must be closed and locked before they can attempt to bypass the second secured door using another method of ID verification. This is typically a more stringent authentication method than the perimeter door uses. With the exception of an emergency situation such as a fire or evacuation, there is no case in which both doors can be left open at the same time. This ensures that the regular passage in and out of a mantrap is slow and controlled.
The ways each door can be unlocked are one of the main differentiators between mantrap systems. The most secure options require an individual to use some form of multifactor authentication to gain entry through the first door, where they might be viewed on camera or greeted by a security guard who will control their access to the second door. Other systems are fully automated.
Where are mantraps used?
Mantraps are more common than you may realize. You could expect to see a mantrap in airlocks, cleanrooms, research labs, data centers, military facilities, casinos, banks, and other highly secure areas or sterile environments. They are typically used to protect highly valuable data or assets from theft or manipulation. Each of these access control systems can only function properly when used in conjunction with the appropriate security protocols.
One of the most frequent and rudimentary applications of an access control vestibule can be found at your local dog park. Most dog park entrances feature two simple locking gates with an open space to ensure no animals can easily escape each time a new visitor attempts to enter the park. While the level of security and ID verification is practically nonexistent – you typically just need to have thumbs to open the gates – it works primarily on the same access control principle as the more complex systems. This type of access control system dates back to the Middle Ages, when a set of heavy portcullis gates was often used to keep a visitor trapped until their identity could be verified.
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Benefits of mantraps
Mantraps are among the best ways to restrict movement in and out of any secure facility. While access cards can be cloned and passwords may be hacked, the additional security of these multilayer systems can highly mitigate the risks of a break-in or unauthorized access. While an unauthorized individual could conceivably breach the first door, this may prevent them from unlocking the second door, potentially trapping them inside until the proper authorities can escort them out. This level of security alongside the threat of being detained serves as a strong deterrent to would-be thieves.
The authentication required to cross through the entire system can be used to create a comprehensive audit trail for personnel and guests, letting you know precisely who has gained entry and the exact moment they interacted with each of your security measures.
Mantraps can also be used in conjunction with additional business security system features, such as metal detectors, multifactor authentication, biometric scanners, stationed guards, video monitoring, PINs, environmental hazard detection, and even infrared beams or scales to ensure that only one person is entering the vestibule at a time.
Drawbacks of mantraps
Mantraps are far from the most affordable smart security systems; in fact, they are very expensive to install and typically require heavy modifications to existing facilities. The basic equipment can cost $30,000 to $60,000, depending on the sophistication and locking mechanisms. Once installed, they can make it difficult to transport large equipment, remove waste or pass regular deliveries to the more secure areas of your facility.
To function at their most stringent level of access control, these systems also require full-time monitoring with a stationed guard, which increases their operating expenses greatly. If not designed, installed, and managed properly, they may also present a significant safety risk to approved individuals inside your facility. It is especially important that this type of access control system is always up to fire code regulations, with an exit that can unlock quickly in case of fire or other emergency evacuation scenarios. It is also critical that anyone with authorization through these systems receives the proper training to leave the premises safely and quickly in case of an emergency.
Without a stationed security guard or other scanning technology, it could still be possible for multiple people to gain access by piggybacking or tailgating off an authorized individual's credentials, whether the authorized individual has provided their credentials voluntarily or not. But with the proper staff and technology, a one-person-only access control system is relatively easy to maintain.