receives compensation from some of the companies listed on this page. Advertising Disclosure


Management Theory of Victor Vroom

Jeanne Dininni

Vroom's motivation theory provides a framework for inspirational leadership

Victor Vroom is perhaps most famous for his work with Expectancy Theory, which forms the basis for his motivational model. Vroom's version of Expectancy Theory grew from the premise that employee performance depends on a number of complex, interrelated factors (i.e., personality, skills, knowledge, experience and ability). Expectancy Theory is built on the relationship between three concepts: Valence (the value an employee places on a specific reward or outcome), Instrumentality (the likelihood that a particular action will lead to a desired outcome), and Expectancy (the belief that effort will lead to the successful completion of an action which will achieve the desired outcome). Through understanding the dynamics of this theory, managers become better able to meet employees' needs, facilitating the completion of the Expectancy cycle.

Another contribution Vroom made to management theory was his Leadership Model, which sets forth five leadership styles managers may use for decision-making. The five styles follow.

1. Autocratic 1: In the first style of Vroom's theory, the manager makes decisions with already available information.

2. Autocratic 2: Manager seeks additional information from the group before making decisions.

3. Consultative 1: Manager consults individual employees before making decisions.

4. Consultative 2: Manager consults the group before making decisions.

5. Group 2: Manager acts as chair, allowing the group to make decisions.

Understand the concepts of Victor Vroom's management theory

Numerous websites provide valuable information about Vroom's theory. In addition to diagrams and summaries of Vroom's Expectancy Theory, you'll find various videos and instructional materials that can help you develop the background knowledge and practical expertise to put the management theory of Victor Vroom to work for your company.
Geronimo Stone (available as a free e-book) by Craig Stevens, who teaches the workshop.

Seek guidance for incorporating Vroom theory into your management program

Consultants with knowledge and experience in the management theory of Victor Vroom can guide you in maximizing the benefit of his principles in your own company's unique environment.

Take advantage of resources designed to help you make the most of Vroom's theory

Widely available online tools and resources can help you more easily implement Vroom's management principles. Videos, tables, surveys and other sources of information and services related to Victor Vroom's motivation theories let you choose the resources most valuable to your business.

  • You'll likely find the many facets of Victor Vroom's management theory fascinating, as you delve more deeply into it. Take advantage of as many Vroom-related online resources as you can. It will be well worth your while, as you learn to put his Leadership and Expectancy theories into practice to help your company mature.
Image Credit: Prostock-Studio / Getty Images
Jeanne Dininni