The key to determining what turns a prospect into a first-time customer is to create a customer journey map that reflects the needs and experiences of your real-life customers. This tool helps you visualize how various types of customers engage with your brand and whether their experience ultimately encourages a sale. Here’s how to develop a customer journey map for your small business.
A customer journey describes how your prospects engage with your brand, from the moment they become aware of it to the time they become a customer and beyond.
“The customer journey is essentially the complete experience your customer goes through when interacting with your company,” said Nell Lanman, senior vice president of product and marketing for SquareFoot. “Instead of just looking at the transaction itself, it’s looking at the full experience and every touchpoint along the way.”
That means the customer journey starts before they are even aware of your brand and extends well past their first purchase. It includes how you acquire new leads and how you retain existing customers.
To better understand the various phases of a customer journey, it helps to break it down into seven general steps. Think carefully about your unique circumstances and the circumstances of your buyer personas to craft a detailed and effective plan for each stage of the customer journey. Start with these seven steps as a general framework, and then adapt them to the realities of your brand.
According to Lauren Patrick, director of community and customer marketing at Uptycs, the customer journey includes the following seven steps:
Importantly, “purchase” is only the third step on the customer journey. That’s because driving a customer to a sale is only part of the journey, Lanman said.
“You don’t want to forget the customer journey doesn’t end at the initial transaction,” she said. “Stay in front of the customer and nurture them. It’s easy to say you’ve succeeded in reaching the clear objective you’ve set, but that success can happen more than once — in an ideal world, it would.”
The customer journey is important because understanding how and why a prospect engages with your brand helps you serve them the right information, which, in turn, improves your odds of ultimately making a sale. That usually takes some time, but every step of the customer journey should be tailored to supporting your prospects on their path to becoming paying customers.
To better understand your typical customer journey, and thus how to move prospects through your sales funnel, it is helpful to create a visualization known as a customer journey map.
A customer journey map is a visualization that tracks the various ways a customer might encounter your brand and the experience that follows.
“A customer journey map helps you understand all the ways in which your ideal customer can find you or enter your sales funnel,” said Heather Sutton Lodge, owner and chief strategy officer at Werkflow Digital.
These entry points could be an advertisement that a customer clicks through to land on your website, a post you made on Facebook, or an introduction email you sent after a prospect subscribed to your newsletter. Customer journey maps are unique to each business and largely depend on the types of customers being targeted and their specific needs.
“When you think of a customer journey, you should think about something visual,” Lanman said, adding that businesses should literally map their customer journey. “Especially in today’s digital environment, there are so many different channels at the top of the sales funnel. Visualizing it really does help.”
So, what should a customer journey map entail? It starts with understanding the seven steps of a customer journey listed above.
If you are creating a customer journey map for the first time, here are five easy steps to get started:
The first step you should take when creating your customer journey map is to determine your objectives, Lanman said.
“Before you even [create a map], set your objectives,” she said. “What is the end goal? What are you trying to accomplish?”
Your goal might be as simple as driving sales, but a customer journey map can articulate many types of conversions. For example, a conversion could be a phone call to book an appointment, or it could be a response to a survey. Clearly define your goals upfront and allow them to inform the development of your customer journey map.
Next, identify and describe in detail the type of customer you are targeting.
“The process starts with knowing your target customer really well,” Lodge said. “Build out a buyer persona to understand their challenges, pain points and needs.”
A buyer persona is a fictional representation of your ideal customer or customers. According to Lanman, buyer personas are fictional characters with names, occupations, hobbies and specific needs. She recommended developing a thorough persona for your single most important type of customer.
Think about how your business first comes into contact with a given persona. Maybe your buyer persona is active on Facebook and saw an advertisement, or maybe they’re most likely to encounter you through a web search. Consider as many channels as possible by which a given persona might find your brand. Once you highlight the ideal persona, you can list the potential touchpoints you think your customer will engage with.
Consider how a customer might continue interacting with your brand from each of these starting points. For example, a potential customer sees your Facebook advertisement with the call to action (CTA) “Shop now.” The potential customer clicks the advertisement and lands on your company’s homepage. Where do they go from there? Was that the best landing page for them to arrive on?
The answer lies in data. Maybe you find that the click-through rate of the Facebook ad is high, but so is the bounce rate on your homepage. What would happen if you had users who clicked the ad land in your e-commerce store instead of on your homepage? Would the bounce rate decrease?
Ask these types of questions for each stage of your customer journey map, and realize that the answers might change over time. [Read related article: How to Keep Customers on Your Site and Boost Sales]
“Once you’ve created a buyer persona, you can know a bit about your audience,” Lodge said. “If it’s moms between 35 and 50, you can assume they’re on Facebook. … Take yourself through that process. How might they find you on Facebook? What actions do they take? Once they find you, how do you learn about them? Do you create a chatbot? Do you have an ad they see and fill out their info?”
In asking these questions, refine your customer journey map over time. Never assume your customer journey map is finished.
“Something that’s very common, even for myself, is you assume too much about your customer,” Lodge said. “An educated assumption about your target audience is fine … [but it’s] important to get feedback from loyal customers or people you know.”
When you receive customer feedback, document it, and use it the next time you revisit your customer journey map.
When you’re considering your customer journey map, it can be helpful to review a case study. Nextiva, a top business phone system provider focused on providing cloud-based communications, maintains more than 150,000 customers. [Learn more in our full review of Nextiva.]
Yaniv Masjedi, chief marketing officer at Nextiva, said the process of mapping the customer journey has been underway since 2009 and has undergone many iterations. Nextiva’s customer journey has seven steps that are unique to the company’s client base and business model:
Nextiva has five buyer personas, each of which articulates a specific job or task that Nextiva can help a client accomplish. Each buyer persona navigates these seven steps differently, Masjedi said. Determining whether your personas, and the assumptions behind them, are accurate takes time.
“We started to profile customers based on the size of their business but quickly realized size, location and industry don’t really tell you what the customer is looking to do with your product,” Masjedi said. “We adjusted our personas to really align with the objective a customer has in working with us. What’s the job they want to accomplish?”
The company continually refines the personas, but Nextiva now has a clearer picture of how its customers approach the company before making a buying decision, Masjedi said, adding that the best way to do that is to put yourself in customers’ shoes.
“What we do is we personally go through the customer journey and experience it ourselves,” he said. “We literally shop our own product and go through the experience. That’s something we consistently do — not just at the beginning, but as an ongoing effort to consistently evaluate what the experience is like.”
The company regularly solicits customer feedback to ensure the accuracy of its assumptions and to identify gaps in its model and areas of improvement.
These customer journey map templates and digital marketing tools can improve your visibility into how your customers engage with your brand.
These tools can inform your decision-making and make it easier to create your customer journey map. However, you can also map a customer journey using a physical whiteboard, markers and sticky notes. Employ a method that works for you and your team. After all, if you want to do it right, you’ll be revisiting and revising your customer journey map time and again.
Skye Schooley contributed to this article. Source interviews were conducted for a previous version.