Edgar Schein’s management theory focuses on the culture within an organization. According to Schein, culture is the primary source …
According to Schein, culture is the primary source of resistance to change within an organization, and an accurate understanding of organizational dynamics begins with recognizing this fact. Edgar Schein theory presents 3 levels of culture, which are necessary to understand for effective leadership: artifacts (surface cultures, such as dress, which are easily seen but difficult to decipher), espoused values (conscious goals, strategies and philosophies), and basic assumptions (unconscious beliefs and values that form the core of culture and affect everything we do).
Schein also analyzed group dynamics based on his theory of organizational culture. According to Schein theory, groups operate within the group culture in the same way that organizations operate within the culture of the organization. His model divides informal groups into 3 classifications:
- Horizontal cliques, or informal groups of similar organizational rank who work in close proximity;
- Vertical cliques, or groups containing various ranks within the same department; and
- The last set identified by Schein’s management theory, mixed cliques, or groups containing members of different ranks, departments and locations.
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