The Best Commercial 3D Printers 2018
Capable of churning out a variety of parts and products directly from computer files, 3D printers are replacing traditional manufacturing techniques like injection molding, casting milling and lathing, allowing the quick creation of everything from prototype engine parts to custom phone cases.
Industrial 3D printers can produce a dazzling array of items. They are used every day to make architectural models, robotics, jewelry and eyewear. These industrial-strength printers – some the size of refrigerators – can create compound curves and sharp edges with precision, in the exact dimensions required.
With a CAD design and a 3D printer, you can make just about anything. The process looks something like this: A designer creates a 3D model with a sophisticated CAD program. The model is then turned into machine instructions for creating the object one ultra-thin layer at a time. The printer creates it and final part emerges, often ready for use.
By moving away from traditional factory processes, 3D printers have the power to not only transform entire industries but the way we think about how we build our world. One thing is certain: 3D printing is here to stay.
Read our reviews and learn what to look for in an industrial 3D printer.
Industry Solutions: Why Get a 3D Printer?
Using a 3D printer can help a business in several ways. To start, the machine can manufacture parts and products of exceptional accuracy. Basically, if you can see it on the screen, a 3D printer can make it.
3D printing ignores the time-honored techniques of casting, molding, milling and finishing the item using subtractive technologies that get to a final shape by taking material away. By contrast, a 3D printer creates the object directly from a CAD file with additive manufacturing technologies where the piece is built up a layer at a time.
Because it skips the molding or casting process, 3D printing can also create huge shortcuts to producing all manner of industrial prototypes and products today. This allows you to shave valuable months off a product's development cycle, and try out different design iterations on a daily, even hourly, basis, speeding up the evolutionary nature of the design and manufacturing process.
The payoff can be speed, efficiency and the power to change the way things are made. Automaker BMW found this out when it started making the assembly line tools used to fit bumpers onto its cars with an extrusion printer, rather than machine aluminum. The part went from taking more than two weeks and $420 to make, to 26 hours at $176. That's a 92 percent reduction in time and a 58 percent drop in price.
This 3D printing technique is used to make things out of plastic, but the technology is quickly moving into new materials, like metals and composites based on wood and carbon fiber. If you think of 3D printing as the equivalent of a laser printer for real-world items – not just paper documents – you get an idea of its potential.
3D printing has the power to change the entire industrial landscape because you don't need to make or buy special molds or tools. That way, you can still make a profit from production runs as small as a single unit. A 3D printer-based factory floor can customize products to the customer's needs – like a lock for a non-standard door thickness – all without having to get new machinery or tooling.
The price tags on 3D printers cover a lot of territory, from small desktop extrusion systems that might cost only $1,000, all the way to room-sized behemoths capable of replacing a machine shop that might go for more than a million dollars. In between is a world of mid-sized printers that can create a wide variety of parts and objects.
Getting the printer is just the start: A 3D printer needs the raw materials to transform designs into the final product. Some of the simpler materials, like polylactic acid, are inexpensive and versatile. More exotic materials are more expensive, but much of the unused leftovers can be recycled for the next print run. On the other hand, materials, like titanium or polyvinyl alcohol, can get very pricey.
State of the Industry
The 3D printer market is a vibrant one that grew by 14 percent in the fourth quarter of 2017. Total machine sales were more than $1.5 billion for the first time, according to a survey done by the London-based market analysis firm Context.
Dig a little deeper and the numbers show that the industry is turning more commercial and industrial. While personal hobby-oriented systems (defined as models costing $2,500 or less) grew by only 10 percent over 2016, industrial-level devices (costing $100,000 or more) grew by 39 percent.
The "Big Five" of the commercial 3D printer market are Stratasys, EOS, GE Additive, 3D Systems and HP (statistics below). Smaller firms like Carbon, SLM Solutions, FormLabs and Rize are potential up-and-comers with a specialty niche or new take on the technology and business.
Top Five 3D Printer Manufacturers
Here's how much each of the "Big Five" have made in machine sales, as well as their share of global market revenue.
- Stratasys: $406 million; 25 percent
- EOS: $204 million; 15 percent
- GE Additive: $146 million; 9 percent
- 3D Systems: $123 million; 8 percent
- HP: $97 million; 6 percent
Printer Types and Technologies
Rather than a single technology, there's a range of techniques that different 3D printers use. All are based on the concept of additive manufacturing rather than traditional subtractive technology in that the item is built up a layer at a time. As a result, additive manufacturing (and 3D printing) can be quicker, more flexible and more efficient than old-school manufacturing.
The most popular 3D printer technologies boil down to five main techniques:
- Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) is the simplest technique, and is used by extrusion machines. They work by softening a plastic filament and extrude it while precisely moving the extruder back and forth to build the item layer by layer. Polylactic acid (PLA) and Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) are the most popular FDM materials, but some contours and curves can be roughly formed, and the final product can lack the internal strength required. The process is for rapid prototyping of all sorts of parts and things like customized phone cases.
- Binder Jetting starts out with a powdered base material that is precisely sprayed with a curing agent that selectively hardens it into its final shape. Binder Jetting can create not only metallic objects – like stainless steel and bronze – but silica as well, for making sand casting molds. It can create jewelry, bearings and small engine parts.
- Vat Polymerization uses stereolithography to solidify a liquid polymer resin by curing it with a beam of ultraviolet light. The light source, often a laser, is precisely aimed with steerable mirrors to where the liquid needs to be hardened into its final shape. The output is smooth with good details, making it a good technique for airplane parts and models for complex surgery.
- Powder Bed Fusion starts with a powdered raw material that is selectively fused into a solid from a laser's heat. The beam moves back and forth selectively hardening areas that need to be built up. It can be used with nylons and metals, like titanium, steel and copper for complicated items like pump housings, gears and even footwear.
- Directed Energy Deposition focuses a high-energy laser or plasma arc to fuse metals together, building the object by solidifying the metallic raw material a layer at a time. The output is solid, strong and durable, but is expensive and restricted to metal items, such as jet engine parts.
What to Look for in a 3D Printer
When getting a 3D printer for your company, you need to consider numerous factors, from its materials, size and consumables to its speed, software and how quickly it can churn out parts. After all, it can be a big investment for a single purpose machine. Here are the criteria that lead to making a best pick for your small business.
Industrial 3D Printer Features
Look for a range of features that can help maximize the printer's time being used and speed set up of new print runs. Remember, the more the 3D printer is used, the less it costs per item to make.
- Connections: While it's convenient to directly link the printer to a workstation via a USB cable or transfer the files via a flash drive, using the company's wired or Wi-Fi network is more efficient.
- Raw material control: Some printers make you pour the material into a hopper, while others package it in a cartridge for quick, clean changes.
- Color: The raw materials for some 3D printers are available in a variety of colors, including neon shades and some that glow in the dark.
- Touch-screen control: Look for printers that have a touch screen for setup, configuration and for customizing the building process.
- Stands: The smaller 3D printers can sit on a table or shelf, but they often have cabinets or stands available that can store maintenance products and the raw materials you'll need.
- Build plate: Everything a 3D printer builds happens on a secure and level stage. It's a good idea to buy several so as soon as the build is done, it can be pulled out and the next job started with an alternate tray.
- Camera: The newest 3D printers have web cams built-in to remotely watch its progress from the other side of the factory or globe.
- Extruders: This is the actual printing nozzle. You'll want more than one if you plan to print in different colors and/or use multiple materials.
Letting the material fit the use is the best way to pick the one you'll be using. After all, you wouldn't want a brittle plastic used for a race car's engine cam, nor would you spend a fortune to make a titanium gear for a food mixer.
By far, plastics – nylon, polyactic acid (PLA) and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) – are the most popular materials for 3D printing and are generally inexpensive. Many 3D printer makers have enhanced these basic materials to be stronger. In fact, there are PLA materials that are as strong as ABS.
Many of the newer printers can work with ceramics and metals, including steel, bronze and gold. Some can even use formerly exotic materials, like carbon fiber and Kevlar.
After you've chosen the technology and the material, you'll need to select a size. Be careful, because as the 3D printing machinery grows, it can get exponentially more expensive. For instance, a small and simple extrusion machine capable of making things that are at most five inches long might cost about $1,000. If you want to double that to 10 inches, the cost would jump to between $7,000 and $20,000. How about items that are up to five feet long? It'll cost you roughly $250,000.
At the truly high-end of the industry are multi-million-dollar machines that use concrete as a starting material and can build structural walls for a variety of buildings. These are mostly experimental, but one in Russia can build an entire house in a day (although it probably takes at least that much time to set it up).
You'll also want to keep printer assembly in mind. Some can have an Ikea-like, build-it-yourself quality, so you'll want to be sure you have the manpower and know-how to set up a bigger machine.
While 3D printers vary, each device is capable of a specified resolution. This roughly corresponds with the smallest feature that can reliably be made by the material and machine. A simple extrusion printer might have a resolution of about 100 to 150 microns, which is fine for most uses: A micron is one-millionth of a meter, 0.001mm or about 0.00004-inch.
Need more exacting designs? The resolution can rise to 75 or 50 microns, or roughly the thickness of a human hair. Some stereo-lithography-based printers can build details as small as 16 microns – slightly larger than a grain of pollen.
Finally, there's a new generation of 3D printers that can create items that go as low as a micron or 1/2,000th of the width of a human hair. Today, these are specialty machines that might be used for precise impeller blades or micro-optics, but they may soon be used to make prosthetic devices and microscopic machinery.
Whether it's a prototype light switch or a jet part, every 3D model starts at the screen of a Computer Aided Design (CAD) workstation. Once it's ready, you'll need to use the printer's software to digitally slice it into the layers that the machine will build.
Generally, the final pre-build step is a preview with all the parameters listed. If all looks good, the program adds supports, renders large solid regions as honeycomb structures that are lighter and use less material. With the machine's build file ready, all you do is press the Start button.
Although you can use the included software to prep the file, there are alternatives. In addition to cloud-based apps that work via a web browser, there are several generic 3D printer preparation apps programs, such as Materialise, Slicr and Octoprint. A single program can work with several 3D printers.
Performance and Speed
When it comes to 3D printing, speed is important but not crucial. A faster printer will obviously let you move on to another item if it's done quickly. On the other hand, a slow but large printer lets you create several items on a single stage at once.
While an industrial stereo-lithographic system might push 15 mm of building per second, an extruder might be closer to 100 or 150 mm/sec. This translates into it taking an hour with the former, or a few minutes with the latter. The typical three-inch wide gear might be producible in about 10 minutes, while a complex model of a patient's heart prior to surgery might require a full day or more.
Resources, Contracts and Customer Service
Because 3D printers are expensive and potentially finnicky machines, there is an art to getting them to do your bidding. The bigger manufacturers have a slew of online resources that go beyond simple manuals and set up instructions. The best companies have training videos and white papers on how to best utilize the machinery and troubleshooting help.
On the downside, even market leaders don't provide 24/7 support. Most limit it to business hours in the U.S., which can be bad for companies that need to run at night or those in far-away time zones.
They typically include a one-year warranty and support, although some limit this to a scant six months. This starts with assistance setting it up and using the printer but extends to documentation and firmware updates.
It's a good idea to extend coverage with a service contract that covers repairs and support. It just might keep a major failure from shutting your company down.
Refurbished vs. Leasing vs. Third-Party Services: Alternatives to Buying a New 3D Printer
If all this sounds good for your company, but it can't afford the capital outlay required, there are alternatives that can reduce the upfront money required. Each involves a compromise, however.
There are companies that refurbish older 3D printers. Like getting a used car, it might cut the purchase price in half, but you need to be careful. It's always a good idea to try it out and have an expert look the system over and make a few models before buying a used printer.
Leased Printing Systems
Many companies, as well as third-party finance companies, will lease you a 3D printing system you might not otherwise have been able to afford. There's a big "gotcha," though: The initial cash outlay is much lower, but you'll actually be paying for the entire printer over three to four years – and you don't get to keep it. This approach is more for the company that needs a printer for a limited time or wants to experiment with 3D printer on the cheap. On the upside, you can avoid technological obsolesce by going this route.
If you want to lease a 3D printing system, look for a full package that includes more than just the machine. You'll need startup materials, support materials and cleaning agents.
Third-Party Printing Services
You may be able to get the benefits of 3D printing without the expense and hassles of owning or leasing one at all. There are hundreds of 3D services that will create your part or product from scratch and ship it to you.
After designing the part and specifying what type of material or printer should be used, the file is uploaded to the service bureau's servers. They take it and create the needed production file for their specific hardware and create your item. They then overnight it to you.
Like a traditional print shop, service bureaus, such as Sculpteo, Shapeways, Materialise and Protolabs, typically have the newest machines and can be more efficient than in-house 3D printing. On the other hand, they need to make a profit, and the extra day or two required goes against the grain of a rapid prototyping and production scheme.
Deciding whether to do it yourself or farm it out involves a complex calculus. The variables, many of which are only a guess, include the cost of the machinery and raw materials, labor costs, complexity of the items and how quickly you need them.
Any way you use these exciting new technologies, one thing is certain: 3D printing is shifting and improving the landscape of manufacturing in the 21st century. The only question that remains is which 3D printer is best for your company's needs.
Common Industrial 3D Printer Questions & Answers
I like to highlight this: 1. Clarify startup business ideas - to sell 3D printers or to use 3D printers to provide services or to rent 3D printers or to run other business but using 3D printers to enhance the results. 2. I suppose you wanted to use 3D printers to provide services - this is the most capital intensive model. Different targeted customers required different types of 3D printers and material investment will be onerous if the mixture of customers are not correct. 3. 3D business...Read More ▼
The professional print companies I have used, when working for a design team for a corporation, have always been local. It's very important to be able to visit the facility, deal with the employees face to face, and of course their equipment. Being able to physically show your printer what you want as a finished product is key. I spent a lot of time creating comps on our Xerox machines and then driving to the shop to show the printers what I want. As a designer, it's really important to be able...Read More ▼
Hi Alice, Printing labels is trivial in many programming languages, including Java and C which would run on a Mac. There are however a number of variables to be taken into consideration, pertaining to the layout, data source and interface to the printer's driver. I see that Etsy has an option, that you may already be aware of, for printing USPS labels purchased from them at : https://www.etsy.com/help/article/3148 By the way, I checked out your store there, cool jewels.Read More ▼
List of 40Best Industrial 3D Printers 2018
uPrint SE is an industrial 3D printer that has accurate, high-quality prints. See what you can prototype with the uPrint SE in our comparison.
Founded in 1994, Solidscape makes high-precision 3D printers that are used in jewelry, consumer electronics, biomedical products, toys, video games, sporting goods and power generation fields.
ProJet 3500 HD Max is a multi-jet printer with above-average accuracy and resolution. Read the full appraisal on the high-definition and high-speed settings.
As a mid-size industrial 3D printer, the Objet Eden260V might seem small but read more on why it can produce larger prints compared to other printers.
The Eosint M 280 prints use-end models with metal so they are more durable compared to plastic. Discover more about this large-scale 3D printer here.
The Dimension 1200es 3D printer is an industrial machine that can handle different resolutions. Find out what makes this 3D printer one of the best here.
The ExOne S-Print is a 3D printer that uses resin and sand to create molds and casts for further processing. Read more about this industrial-sized printer.
Although it's small in size, the Mojo is big on quality. Find out how quick the Mojo can print here.
MakerBot Replicator Z18
The MakerBot Replicator Z18 is a steal for its low price and the wide array of things it can make.
Stratasys Fortus 250mc
The Stratasys Fortus 250mc is a jack-of-all-trades for 3D printing that's great for rapid prototyping of parts and manufacturing in large quantities.
ProJet MJP 3600
3D Systems' ProJet MJP 3600 is designed to create concept models, functional prototypes, molds and end-use parts. With the ability to reliably make smaller details than most other 3D printers, this model's precision makes it stand out among competitors.
Leapfrog Xeed 3D
The Leapfrog Xeed 3D offers a wide choice of materials, very tight precision and a unique dual-extruder design.
The Fusion3 F410 is a bargain 3D printer that quickly makes plastic prototypes and products.
HP Jet Fusion 3D 4200 Printer
The HP Jet Fusion 3D 4200 printer is designed to help companies cost-effectively produce prototypes or other functional products with a number of applications.
EOS M 100
The EOS M 100 was designed for entry-level industrial 3D printing in complex metal parts. With additive manufacturing 3D printers capable of costing upward of half a million dollars, at about $70,000, the EOS M 100 is a breath of fresh air.
XYZ Printing Pro
The XYZ Printing Pro company targets consumer, education and professional 3D printing markets. It's most well-known for its da Vinci line of devices.
Specializing in 3D printing as a service, White Clouds was founded in 2013.
The World's Advanced Saving Project, also known as WASP, is an Italian-based 3D printer company. It's ultimate goal is to 3D print a house.
Founded in San Diego, California, UniZ claims to make the world's fastest 3D printers. It specializes in stereolithography (SLA) printers.
Ultimaker has offices in both the Netherlands and the U.S. Its goal is to "accelerate the world's transition to local digital manufacturing," through innovating 3D printers.
Manufacturer of MakerPi 3D printers, SoonGon is a Chinese company.
Headquartered in Germany, SLM Solutions bills itself as a "leading provider of powder bed fusion machinery and applications development for meta prototypes and manufacturing production."
Sharebot is an Italian 3D printer maker of both consumer and professional-grade models that target small and medium-sized businesses. It was founded in 2012.
Specializing in industrial 3D printing, Rize is employed by the U.S. Army, NASA, Merck, HMS Industries and many others. It uses its patented Augmented Polymer Deposition (APD) to print in 3D.
Also known as Fused Form, this 3D printer company is based in Bogota, Colombia. The company makes five printers made from laser-cut and bent aluminum.
Prodways: Prodways Group is a specialist in industrial and professional 3D printing based in Europe. It is a subsidiary of Group Gorge.
Optomec systems work to create products for various industries such as electronics, energy, life sciences, aerospace and defense, and the Internet of Things (IoT).
The Japanese printing company Mimaki makes 3D printers, wide-format printers, plotters and software. The company got its start in 1975 as an engineering company.
As the only company to use paper as a material in 3D printing, Mcore Technologies uses Selective Deposition Lamination (SDL) technology. It was founded in 2005.
Markforged offers 3D printing services in less than 24 hours. It uses carbon fiber, stainless steel, titanium, aluminum, Kevlar and several other materials.
Targeting smaller businesses, MakerGear boasts more than 10,000 3D printer users in 75-plus countries. Its products are crafted in Ohio.
Lulzbot 3D printers is employed by Fortune 500 companies, NASA, small businesses, universities, hackers and many others. It's community and open-source hardware guides its principles.
Headquartered in Shanghai, Intamsys is short for Intelligent Additive Manufacturing Systems. It offers on-demand manufacturing with 3D printing using a variety of materials.
Impossible Objects 3D printer maker uses composite-based additive manufacturing technology (CBAM) to offer 3D printing at scale. Its products use a wide range of materials such as fiber fabrics and polymers.
Also known as Arcam EBM and ConceptLaser, this division of the engineering giant owns several sub-companies that specialize in 3D printing. It makes GE Additive one of the largest 3D printing companies in the world.
Formlabs started at MIT in 2011 and has only grown globally since then. Not only does it make 3D printers, but it creates new materials and software to aid in those processes.
The Desktop Metal Production system, coming in 2019, promises to deliver "speed, quality and cost-per-part needed with traditional manufacturing processes."
The Carbon 3D printer company uses what it calls CLIP technology, which stands for Continuous Liquid Interface Production.
A relative newcomer to the industrial 3D printer market, BigRep products can be used to make everything from furniture to vehicles to robots. It is a European-based company that was founded in 2014.